Origin theory.

For those who love to delve into the etiology of cancer, the hallmarks of cancer (including things like replicative immortality and evasion of cell death) originally coined in 2000 have been a longtime fan favorite as a general paradigm for understanding all things oncology. The original author is back over two decades later to update the now-famous model with four new key concepts.These include “phenotypic plasticity” where cells revert to more immature states and differentiate into various lineages, “epigenetic reprogramming” independent of gene mutations, “polymorphic microbiomes” in places like the gut mucosa that can independently induce or inhibit other hallmarks, and “senescent cells” that can be recruited to promote proliferative signaling and dampen immune response within the tumor microenvironment. | Hanahan, Cancer Discov 2022


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