Does anyone know why the heck washing the bladder in a tuberculosis vaccine can eradicate early-stage bladder cancer? Here’s a fascinating review of the underpinnings of the efficacy behind bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Interestingly, it appears to hinge on CD4+ T cells as opposed to CD8+ T cells that drive the response of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). TBL: BCG for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer may find ICI to be a very useful additive therapy to draw upon the immune system from multiple angles. | Li, Eur Urol 2020


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