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June 19, 2017. The OAK trial was another practice-changing study highlighted at ASCO this year. 850 advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who progressed on platinum-based chemotherapy (plus TKIs in cases of EGFR and/or ALK alterations) were randomized to receive atezolizumab (PD-L1 antibody) vs docetaxel. Atezolizumab resulted in a significant improvement in the primary endpoint of overall survival (13.8 vs 9.6 months, p=0.0003). Interestingly, this survival advantage held steady across high and low PD-L1 expressions as well as both squamous and non-squamous histologies. This Phase III trial further supports its Phase II predecessor the POPLAR trialresulting in FDA approval of atezolizumab for this indication in October. Looks like this targeted therapy is putting down roots in the NSCLC treatment algorithm.